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Abstract: In Mohelenská hadcová step National Nature Reserve and its surrounding, changes in abundance and occurrence of diurnal butterflies and burnets have been studied since the 1950s up to the present (i.e. the year 2018). The findings were compared with published results of similar observations from the 1930s and 1940s. A total of 143 species (81% of the Czech Republic), of which 115 belong to the Papilionoidea superfamily, 14 of the Hesperiidae family and 14 of the Zygaeninae subfamily, have been recorded in the area to this date. Of this number, 40 species (28%) have already become extinct, 52 species (36.3%) occur irregularly or sporadically, and 51 species (35.7%) occur more or less regularly and frequently. Besides the extinct species, 33 other species show a decline in abundance and only 6 species are currently more common than in the past. This is caused by gradual encroachment of the area with expansive trees, shrubs and tall grasses, a decrease in some habitats as a result of human activity, and also by the impact of unspecified global factors.

Key words: faunistics, Lepidoptera, species richness, abundance changes, Mohelno Region, Czech Republic

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